Senin, 21 April 2014

Story of the Name of Cities in Indonesia


The name " Malang " is still researched its origins by historians. Malangkucecwara written on the emblem of the city, according to one hypothesis is the name of a sacred building. The name it self is sacred buildings found in two inscriptions of King Balitung of Central Java, the inscription Mantyasih in 907, and the 908 inscriptions found in one place between Surabaya - Malang. However, where is the real sacred buildings Malangkucecwara it, historians are still not getting the deal. The parties expect that the location of sacred buildings in the area is mountain Buring, the mountains stretching to the east of the city of Malang where there is a mountain peak named Malang. Proof of the correctness of this conjecture is still underway as it turns out, to the west of the city of Malang also there is a mountain named Malang. Malangkucecwara name consists of three words, namely mala meaning fraud, falsehood, and falsehood ; angkuca which means destroying or destroy; and Icwara which means " God ". Thus, Malangkucecwara means " God has destroyed the evil ".

Previous hypotheses, perhaps in contrast to the opinion of Malang suspect that the name is derived from the word "Denied" or "hinder" ( in Javanese means Malang ). Once Sunan Mataram who wants to spread its influence to the East Java has been trying to occupy the area of ​​Malang. Residents of the area to fight a great war. Therefore Sunan Mataram assume that the local people to obstruct, deny or poor on the intent of Sunan Mataram. Since then, the area was named Malang.


Salatiga is small city in Central Java, Indonesia and located between Semarang  and Surakarta city.  It situated at the foot of Merbabu and Telomoyo Mount, and has a relatively cool climate due to its elevated position. This city has a history of why it is called Salatiga.  And this is the story …

Once upon a time, there was a king his name is Adipati Pandanarang II, who governed Semarang as regent. His people loved him very much because he was honest and wise but he loves to his exuberant wealth. The character of Adipati was heard by Sunan Kalijaga, he is a wise wali. Sunan wants to remains Pandanarang II through passing off as seller of grass and sell it to the king with very low price. Adipati just gives him 5 sen for his grass. Everyday, the king ask to the seller to put the grass into the stable but the seller inserts his money from the king between the grass. The money was found by the servant of the king and he told to his employer.

And what has done by the seller of grass makes the king angry, he felt that the seller mock him and ask to the seller why he doesn’t received the money. The seller said that he doesn’t need the wealth because it never lasting. And he also said that there was gold and diamond in the palace yard. The seller prove it to the king and the result there was gold and diamond inside it. Finally, the king knows that the seller is Sunan Kalijaga. He asks apologize to Sunan and Adipati ask to become his follower. Sunan Kalijaga agree of his idea but he must leaves his wealth. 

Adipati’s wife joined with her husband. But, she doesn’t willing to leaves her wealth and give it to the poor people. She asks to her husband to goes earlier. After that, this women saves her gold and diamond into her bamboo stick.  

The king and Sunan Kalijaga walk together but in their way they meet with three robbers.

“If you want the wealth, just wait the old women. She brings her gold and diamond in her bamboo stick,” Said Sunan Kalijaga.

Then, the queen come with her stick. Three robbers ask the women’s stick and carry away from her. The queen just cry. When she met with her husband and Sunan, she told the story to them about what happened to her.

Sunan said “ You doesn’t hear what your husband said. if you want to follow me just leave your wealth”.

To remain that tragedy, Sunan Kalijaga named the place “Salah Tiga” which literally meant  three mistakes. Salah is mistake and tiga is three.

Sunan Kalijaga said that there were three mistakes in that place, the  first is king’s mistake because he is very loves of his wealth, second is the queen’s mistake, and the last is the robbers. Day by day Salah Tiga become Salatiga.  Nowadays, this city become the busy city.  


          In ancient times in the east end of East Java Province, there is a great empire ruled by a just and wise king. King The stout has a son named Raden Banterang. Craze Raden Banterang is hunting. "This morning I would hunt the woods. Prepare hunting tool, "said Raden Banterang to his servants. After hunting equipment ready, Raden Banterang with some escorts to leave for the forest. When Raden Banterang walking alone, he saw a deer crossed in front of him. He immediately chase deer until deep into the woods. He separated with his escorts.

"Where a deer that all about?" Said Raden Banterang, when it lost track of his quarry. "I'll continue to search until it can be," his determination. Raden Banterang through the bush and forest trees. However, the game was not found. He arrived at a river water is very clear. "Hem, very fresh water of this river," Raden Banterang drinking water of the river, to feel lost thirst. After that, he left river. But only a few steps to walk, suddenly startled the arrival of a beautiful girl. "Ha? A beautiful girl? Was she a human? Perhaps forest guardian devil, "muttered Banterang Raden wondered. Raden Banterang ventured to approach that beautiful girl. "You're human or forest watchman?" Raden Banterang said. "I'm human," she replied with a smile. Raden Banterang even introduce himself. Pretty girl for him. "My name is Surati, i’m derived from kingdom of Klungkung". "I was in this place for saving themselves from enemy attack. My father had died in defense of the royal crown, "she explained. Listening to the girl, Raden Banterang absurdly surprised. Seeing the suffering of the King of Klungkung's daughter, Raden Banterang immediate help and took her back to the palace. Soon they were married build happy family.

One day, the daughter of the King of Klungkung take a walk outside the palace alone. "Surati! Surati! ", Calling a man dressed in rags. After watched the man's face, she realized that that was in front of her was older brother named Rupaksa. Rupaksa intentions is to invites his sister to take revenge, because Raden Banterang killed father. Surarti tell that she would have been married Raden Banterang indebted. By doing so, Surati not want to help call his brother. Rupaksa angry to hear the answer . However, it could provide a memories to Surati to a headband. "This headband should you keep under your bed, "message Rupaksa. Surati to the meeting with his brother is not known by Raden Banterang,  because Raden Banterang was hunting in the forest. When Raden Banterang be in the middle of the forest, his eyes suddenly startled by the arrival of a man dressed in rags. "My lord, Raden Banterang. your Safety danger planned by the host's own wife, "said the man. 'You can see the evidence, by looking at a headband that is placed under the dusk. The headband belonging to the man who asked for help to kill the Lord, " he explained. After saying those words, the man was dressed in rags mysteriously disappeared. Raden Banterang alarmed to hear reports of mysterious men that. He was immediately returned to the palace. After arriving at the palace, Raden  Banterang direct the dusk toward his wife. Looking headband that has been told by men rags that have been encountered in the forest. "Ha! True said that man! This headband as proof! You want to kill me with a plan for help to the owner of this headband! "accused Raden Banterang to his wife. "Is that you repay me? "said Raden Banterang." Do not just accused. Adina at all did not intend to kill Kakanda, let alone ask for help to a man! "replied

Surati. However Raden Banterang remain at its founding, that his wife ever helped it would endanger his life. Well, before his life is threatened, Raden Banterang first want to harm his wife. Raden Banterang intending to drown her in a river. After arriving The river, Raden Banterang told about a meeting with a man in rags when hunting in the woods. The wife also told about meeting with a man dressed in rags as described her husband. "The man is the older brother of Adina. It was he who gave a headband to Adina, "Surati to explain again, so Raden Banterang yield his heart. However, Raden Banterang continue to believe that she would harm himself. "Kakanda my husband! Open your heart and feelings Kakanda! Adina would die for Kakanda safety. But give the opportunity for Adina to tell Adina meeting concerning the older brother named Rupaksa, "said Surati warned."My brother will kill Kakanda ! Adina demand help, but Adina reject". Hearing this, the liquid heart Raden Banterang not even consider she lied . "Kakanda! If the river water becomes clear and fragrant smell, Adina mean innocent! However, if it remains cloudy and foul odor, meaning Adina guilty! "said Surati. Raden Banterang she considers it ridiculous remark there. So, Raden Banterang immediately drew his dagger tucked in his waist. Along the same, Write to jump into the river and disappeared. Not long ago, there was a miracle. Nan fragrant smell spread around the river. Seeing the incident, Raden Banterang cried in a trembling voice. "My wife does not sin! Fragrant water this time! "How sorry Raden Banterang. He bemoaned death of his wife, and regretting his folly. But it was too late. Since then, the river becomes fragrant. In the Java language called Banyuwangi. Banyu meaning meaning fragrant water and fragrant. The name later became the name of the town of Banyuwangi


Previously, in the vast sea of ​​frequent fights between sharks Sura with Crocodile. They fight just because of fighting over prey. Both are equally strong, equally deft, equally smart, equally fierce, and are equally greedy. Already many times they fight has never been anyone else winning or losing. Eventually they entered into an agreement.

"I'm tired of constantly fighting, Crocodile," said Sura fish.

"Me too, Sura. What should we do so that we no longer fight, "said Vera.

Sura Shark who already have rertcana to stop Fight with Crocodile immediately explained.

"To prevent a fight between us, we should divide the territory into two. I am able sepenuhnyadi in water and must find prey in the water, while you power on the mainland and prey must be located on the mainland. As the boundary between land and water, we set the limit, ie the place reached by sea water when the tide! "

"Whether I agree with that idea!" Said the Crocodile.

With the division of territory, it is no longer a fight between Sura and Crocodile. Both have agreed to honor their respective territories.

But one day, Shark find prey in the river Sura. This is done by stealth for Crocodiles do not know. At first it memarig not get caught. But one day Crocodile Shark caught doing this Sura. Of course, very angry seeing Crocodile Shark Sura breaking his promise.

"Hi Sura, why do you break the rules we agreed together? Why do you dare to enter the river which is the area of ​​mercy? "Asked Vera.

Shark Sura did not feel guilty calm. "I violated the agreement? Is not this river water.

Did not I tell that I was the ruler in the water? Well, this river is it is water, so it also includes areas mercy, "Shark said Sura.

"What? The river was' curry place on land, while the regional powers in the sea, meaning the river is an area of ​​my power! "Crocodile insisted.

"No way. I "do not ever tell you that in water only sea water, but river water," Shark said Sura.

"You're deliberately looking for trouble, Sura?"

"No! I think the reason is strong enough and I was in the right! "Said Sura.

"You deliberately outsmart me. I'm not as stupid as you think! "Said the crocodile was getting angry.

"I do not care you're stupid or smart, the important river water and sea water is my power!" Sura still do not want to lose.

"Then you really mean to lie to me? Thus our agreement null and void! Who has the most powerful force, he shall become the sole ruler! "Said the Crocodile.

"Fighting again, who fear!" Challenged Sura with middle.

Fierce fight between Sura and Crocodile Shark happen again. The battle this time more exciting and powerful. Hit each other and pouncing, biting and hitting each other. In an instant, the water around it became red with blood coming out from the wounds of both the animal. They continued to fight desperately with no break at all.

In this fierce battle, Crocodile Shark bites Sura get on base of its tail to the right. Furthermore, their tails are always forced to turn to the left. While fish is also tergigiut Sura until nearly severed tail and fish Sura returned to the ocean. Crocodiles have been satisfied to maintain the area.

The battle between Shark named Sura with Crocodile is very memorable in the hearts of the people of Surabaya. Hence, the name of Surabaya always been associated with this event. From this incident and then made the symbol of Surabaya Municipality is drawing sura fish and crocodiles.

However There is also a opinion comes from the word Surabaya Sura and Baya. Sura means Jaya Baya meant danger or safe, so Surabaya means survivors face the danger. The danger in question is attack Tar-tar soldiers who want to punish the King Java. Should Kertanegara convicted is because Kertanegara already been killed, then stormed by the army Jayakatwang Tar-tar. After defeating Jayakatwang people Tar-Tar seize property and dozens of beautiful girls to take to China. Raden Wijaya sepereti not bear this. With a sniper tactics, Raden Wijaya attack soldiers at the port of Tar-Tar Edge Galuh until they withdrew back to China.

Furthermore, from the days events Raden Wijaya victory is defined as the anniversary of Surabaya.

Surabaya seemed destined to continue in turmoil. On 10 november 1945 is proof of identity citizens of Surabaya that is the courage to face danger British and Dutch attacks.

At the present, fighting battles and ground water areas continues. At the time of the rainy season arrives sometimes flood control of the city of Surabaya. In the dry season sometimes tenpat-place pool of water into dry land. That Surabaya.


In ancient times, the area of ​​South Sumatra and Jambi province in the form of some unique wilderness and beautiful. Dozens of large and small rivers originating from the Bukit Barisan, the mountains around Mount Dempo, and Lake Ranau flows in the region.Thus, the region known as the Batanghari Nine. Major rivers that flow in the region include Komering River, River Lematang, Ogan River, River Rawas, and several rivers that empty into the Musi River. There are two Musi River which empties into the sea in an adjacent area, the River Musi to Palembang and the Musi River through Banyuasin somewhat to the north.

Since many major rivers, lowland areas of the circular of Jambi, South Sumatra, Lampung province to an area that has many small lakes. The origin of small lakes that are flooded marsh at high tide the sea water. While the city of Palembang, known now by history is a river island in Malay. Small island was a hill named Bukit Seguntang Mahameru.

The uniqueness of the place other than a dense forest rimbanya and many small lakes, and many flowers that thrive throughout the region was inhabited by a goddess with her ladies-in-waiting. Goddess was called Princess Goda. Actually, she was named Princess Ayu Sundari. Goddess and her ladies-in-waiting that inhabit the jungle forests, slopes, and the peak of Bukit Barisan and the islands now known as Malaysia. They love to come to the area to mingle and Nine Batanghari bathe in lakes, crystal clear rivers, or coastal area, ramps, and length.

Because of the large river which empties into the sea, then in those days the voyagers easily fit through the rivers to the deep, even to the foot of the mountains, which was fertile and prosperous area. Then there was communication between the traders, including traders from China with the locals. The area became crowded by locals with trading between dealers. As a result, the goddess of heaven was annoyed and look elsewhere.

Meanwhile, many people come around the River Musi to make a home there. Because South Sumatra is a swampy lowland, the inhabitants make a house called the raft.

At that time the Mount Seguntang Mahameru man in the spotlight because the land is fertile and the various interest bodies in the area. Bukit Sungai Melayu Seguntang Mahameru place is also famous.

Therefore, people who have lived in River Malays, especially the city of Palembang, now calling themselves the River Malay population, which then turned into a pen Malay seat.

According to the old Malay, said hollow means that many low-lying flooded, sometimes drowning sometimes dry. Thus, the highland people who want to Palembang would often say to me Lembang. So did the immigrants who entered the River Musi said it would be to Lembang.

Once when Princess Ayu Sundari and his retinue are still in Bukit Seguntang Mahameru, there is a ship that crashed on the coast of southern Sumatra. Three sisters were there was the son of Alexander the king. They survived the crash and stranded on the Mount Seguntang Mahameru.

They welcomed daughter Sundari Ayu. Alexander the king's eldest son, the Sapurba later married Princess Ayu Sundari and her two brothers married the daughter's family.

Because living in Bukit Sungai Seguntang Mahameru Malay, then the Sapurba and his wife claimed to be Malay. Their offspring then develop and participate in local activities Lembang. Lembang name more famous. Then when people want to Lembang always said it would be to Palembang. Said an old Malay pa in the show area or location. Economic growth is increasingly crowded. Musi river and into the path of the River Musi Banyuasin per strong trade known to other countries. Lembang name was changed to Palembang.

Sumber :

Subject Verb Agreement (Even)

1. There are much books in the library.
     Answer : There are many books in the library.
2. A group of students are discussing the homeworks.
     Answer : A group of students is discussing the homeworks.
3. The president of Iran or the president of Turkey are attending the meeting.
     Answer : Either the president of Iran or the president of Turkey is attending the meeting.
4. Neither they nor my sons never does the school task.
     Answer : Neither they nor my sons never do the school task.
5. Not only my mother, but also my father have been in London.
     Answer : Not only my mother, but also my father has been in London.